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In general shear waves are used for defect detection. The detection of defects with ultrasound makes use the corner effect. If a wave propagates under an angle of 45° towards the surface normal into the material a reflector which is oriented perpendicular to the surface will reflect the sound back into the probe (after one more reflection at the back surface - see image 2). Depending on the way of sound the time of flight is changing, thus you can distinguish between positions of defects close to the surface or far from the surface (with pipes: external defects or internal defects). According to the size of the reflector the acoustic pressure of the reflected ultrasonic wave is changing. Normally the indications are evaluated according to its reflection behavior with regard to the reflection behaviour of an artificially generated reflector of a known size and geometry.

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